On the Origin of Armour-marking in the German-speaking Lands

Bogdanov A.E. K voprosu o vozniknovenii praktiki klejmlenija dospeha v nemeckojazychnyh zemljah [On the Origin of Armour-marking in the German-speaking Lands]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 9, pp. 180 — 203. Bogdanov A. E. Abstract: Master mark is one of the main basics for the correct attribution of the European armour. However, on studying the armour suits, manufactured before the second half of the 15th century,    scholars are inevitably faced with the problem that no country saving Italy practiced armour marking in that time. The aim of the article is to point out and trace the origin of armour marking outside of Italy, and it can be rightfully considered as a turning point in the history of the European armour manufacturing. The author describes the backstory of existence and interconnections of Italian and German gunsmith schools in the 15th century. On the grounds of the analysis of armour suits,…

An officer’s Fate. Junior Captain A.G.Erkudov’s small sword with an award badge of the Order of St. Anne

Novoselov V.R. (2020). Sud’ba oficera. Annenskaja shashka shtabs-kapitana A. G. Jerkudova [An officer’s Fate. Junior Captain A.G.Erkudov’s small sword with an award badge of the Order of St. Anne]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 9, pp. 170 — 179. Novoselov V. R. Abstract: The article is devoted to a small sword with an award badge of the Order of St. Anne from the collection of the Moscow Kremlin Museums, and to the fate of its owner, Junior Captain A.G.Erkudov. In the course of investigation, the author managed to ascertain that A.G.Erkudov was rewarded with the badge of the order of St. Anne of the 4th Class for the participation in the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905. The archival records found by the author permitted him to trace some details of Junior Captain Erkudov’s life and to provide insight into the circumstances by which he earned the award. The short life of…

The Collection of Corps Weapons from the State Hermitage Museum “Arsenal”

Biskup N.R. (2020). Kollekcija studencheskih korporacij iz sobranija Arsenala Gosudarstvennogo Jermitazha [The Collection of Corps Weapons from the State Hermitage Museum “Arsenal”]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 9, pp. 118 — 149. Biskup N. R. Abstract: The author introduces into scientific discourse the collection of corps weapons from the State Hermitage museum. This unique collection is of great importance for the study of mensur duels that were practiced among the Russian student groups in the second half of the 19th- the beginning of the 20th century. In the “Arsenal” department collections of arms and amour, used in such duels and marked with the corps emblems of Dorpat, Riga and Saint-Petersburg universities are curated. On the territory of the Russian Empire, the corps were organized in the Baltic universities as well as in the Saint-Petersburg and Moscow ones, while the very notion was borrowed from Germany, where the tradition of…

A sword, a suit of armour and a quiver to be presented to Nicholas II

Neratova E. I. (2020). Mech, dospeh i saadak – dar Nikolaju II [A sword, a suit of armour and a quiver to be presented to Nicholas II]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 9, pp. 150 — 169. Neratova E. I. Abstract: The article deals with the objects from the collection of the Russian museum of ethnography, which were presented on behalf of Dalai Lama XIII to Nicholas II on the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty. The author briefly analyzes the political situation and Russian-Tibetan relationship both in diplomatic and spiritual spheres just before the participation of the Tibet formal representative in the festivities on the occasion of the Russian ruling house jubilee. The presents to the Russian tsar are explained to have been a thoroughly measured stroke of policy, aimed to bring Tibet the international recognition in political affairs. Unfortunately, this move did not have ramifications because of…

On the Inventory of Boris Godunov’s Weapon Treasury. The year of 1588

Chubinsky A.N. (2020). Ob opisi oruzhejnoj kazny Borisa Godunova 1588 g. [On the Inventory of Boris Godunov’s Weapon Treasury. The year of 1588]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 9, pp. 82 — 117. Chubinsky A. N. Abstract: The inventory of boyard Boris Fyodorovitch Godunov’s treasury 1588, was published about one hundred fifty years ago. The part of the document with weapon descriptions is the oldest Russian inventory of the hand-held weapons, armour and other military equipment. The inventory was made before Godunov’s obtention of the monarch title, but the objects listed there could be later incorporated in the royal arsenal. This important document has not been in focus of a special research of weapon historians yet. The author analyzes the inventory layout, the problems of classification and terminology, and possibility to find out the design of the objects listed. In the inventory the weapons are generally grouped according to…

European Elements in the Military Culture and Weapon Use in Iran

Malozyomova E. I. (2020). Evropejskie cherty v oruzhejnoj kul’ture Irana [European Elements in the Military Culture and Weapon Use in Iran]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 9, pp. 35 — 63. Malozyomova E. I. Abstract: The article is devoted to the contacts between Iran and different European countries in the field of weapon use and warfare. The author traces the presence of European arms and military forces in the armies of Iran starting from the days of the Achaemenids and up until the 19th century. In the ancient times, Greek soldiers, equipped with their native weapons served in the army of Iran. Some of them were granted membership in the Iranian aristocracy. Later, with the beginning of the Muslim era, European military technologies were used in the armies of those who ruled in Iran. It specially included the firearms, which were developed poorly there. Primary sources fix firearms imported…

A saber with an Image of St. George from the Collection of the State Hermitage Museum

Obraztsov Vs.N., Pyatnitsky Yu.A. (2020). Sablja s izobrazheniem Sv. Georgija iz sobranija Gosudarstvennogo Еrmitazha [A saber with an Image of St. George from the Collection of the State Hermitage Museum]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 9, pp. 64 — 81. Obraztsov Vs. N., Pyatnitsky Yu. A. Abstract: The article continues the authors’ study series of a group of long-edged weapons from the collection of the State Hermitage museum, which decorative schemes include Christian images. The article deals with a saber ornamented with an image of St. George. The saber entered the Imperial Hermitage museum in 1885-1886 as a part of the Arsenal of Tsarskoye Selo collection. The saber used to belong to the Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovitch, who bought it in the city of Brailov (the nowaday Brail city in Romania) during the Russo-Turkish war of 1828-1829. The saber blade was made of high quality crucible steel and represents…

Weapons by Michele Lorenzoni in the Collection of the Gatchina Palace

Rodionov E. A. (2020). Oruzhie Mikele Lorenconi v kollekcii Gatchinskogo dvorca [Weapons by Michele Lorenzoni in the Collection of the Gatchina Palace]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 9, pp. 12 — 34. Rodionov E. A. Abstract: The article deals with the weapons made by Michele Lorenzoni, the most famous Florentine gun master of the late 17th- beginning of the 18th centuries, which are curated in the Gatchina palace museum. These are a gorgeous repeating gun № ГДМ-65-IX and an ordinary flintlock gun № ГДМ-707-IX, which lock was made by Lorenzoni. The repeating flintlock gun № ГДМ-65-IX represents a very rare constructive variant of the Lorenzoni system that is usually called the ‘mixed’ system (sistema misto). The ‘Mixed’ system guns, by contrast with the ones of its simpler and quite widespread variants, were made by Michele Lorenzoni solely. This system presumes powder magazine and bullet magazine to be situated in…

Edged Weapons and Ritualized Theatrical Performances in Iran

Malozyomova E. I. (2020). Holodnoe oruzhie i ritual’no-teatralizovannye predstavlenija v Irane [Edged Weapons and Ritualized Theatrical Performances in Iran]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 8, pp. 151 — 189. Malozyomova E. I. Abstract: The article is devoted to the analyzes of number of Iranian edged weapons, lacking any fighting efficiency but distinctively ornamented, from the collections of the Russian museum of ethnography and Peter the Great Museum of anthropology and ethnography (the Kunstkamera). Such weapons of diversified types (sabers, swords, daggers, battle-axes, defensive weapons) form a considerable part of museum collections, and evidently were produced by quantities in Iran, from where they appeared in the museums either directly, that is important, or via the antique shops in Europe and Russia in the second half of the 19th-the beginning of the 20th centuries. Based on the complex analyses of both the objects, and primary sources as well as research literature…

Specifity of Identification of the Materials, Used for Oriental Edged Weapons Handles Manufacturing, as well as Pieces of Applied Arts, Made of Rhinoceros Horn

Miloserdov D. Y. (2020). Osobennosti opredelenija materiala rukojatej vostochnogo klinkovogo oruzhija, a takzhe hudozhestvennyh i dekorativno-prikladnyh izdelij, izgotovlennyh iz roga nosoroga [Specifity of Identification of the Materials, Used for Oriental Edged Weapons Handles Manufacturing, as well as Pieces of Applied Arts, Made of Rhinoceros Horn]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 8, pp. 135 — 150. Miloserdov D. Y. Abstract: The article actualizes the problem of correct identification and distinguishing of osteological materials, used for manufacturing of different pieces of applied arts, including the handles of edged weapons. The author states these materials to be often described as just “horn”, though horns of different mammals were used. The most complex the problem is with the describing of the objects made of the horn of the rhinoceros. It causes not only mistakes in museum descriptions, but also more serious aftereffects, concerning the definition of insurance value of the objects transported and…

An Attempt of Hermeneutic Approach to Solve a Problem, Concerning the Interpretation of Indian Historical Weapons as Signs-Objects of Traditional Culture

Kurochkin A. Y. (2020). Opyt germenevticheskogo podhoda k resheniju gnoseologicheskoj problemy interpretacii predmetov istoricheskogo oruzhija Indii kak veshhej-simvolov tradicionnoj kul’tury [An Attempt of Hermeneutic Approach to Solve a Problem, Concerning the Interpretation of Indian Historical Weapons as Signs-Objects of Traditional Culture]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 8, pp. 93 — 134. Kurochkin A. Y. Abstract: The current research presents a bash, had at analyzes of historical weapons of India,  using the cohesive approach, which was proposed by scholars for studying objects, acting in the traditional cultures and having profound symbolic meaning alongside their utilitarian functions. Simultaneously, the very role of these objects and the range of their practical use are comprehended in terms of their ritual, ceremonial, cultic, and other ways of application, which were not the less practical in the traditional cultures. Today the most common approach used for Indian weapons studying is still the one, which was…

Weapon as a Party to a Relationship

Sheremetev D. A. (2020). Oruzhie kak sub’ekt otnoshenij [Weapon as a Party to a Relationship]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 8, pp. 4 — 85. Sheremetev D. A. Abstract: The article represents a shot, taken at analyzes of weapon as a party to a relationship in the realm of traditional military cultures. The grounds for the question are the folkloristic data and ethnographic watch that testify the specific for the traditional cultures way of weapon perception, which goes far beyond the instrumental approach, typical for the modern cultures. In a traditional culture object, in general, and weapon, in particular, obtains semantic ties with mythological era of the Creation and hence, have its own cultural status. The special position of weapon in the cultural hierarchy presumes its complex internal structure, which permits it to exist adequately in the system of relationship with other objects and the universe. The current research…

Revisiting the Russian Weapons from Crucible Steel in the 17th Century (a case study of the former archive of the Armoury Chamber)

Orlenko S., Novosyolov V., Kurmanovsky V. (2019). K voprosu o bulatnom oruzhii russkoj raboty XVII v. (po materialam byvshego arhiva Oruzhejnoj palaty) [Revisiting the Russian Weapons from Crucible Steel in the 17th Century (a case study of the former archive of the Armoury Chamber)]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 7, pp. 6 — 88. Orlenko S., Novosyolov V., Kurmanovsky V. Abstract: The problem of the present article is the history of the manufacturing and functioning of weapons made from crucible steel in Russia. It is a challenging question for the local weapon study. The main object of the investigation is the Moscow Armoury Chamber, which was the court workshop and stockpile for the Russian tsars in the 17th century.  The present research is based on the authentic sources concerning the activity of the Armoury Chamber in the 17thcentury. These are the inventories, cash receipts and payment books, documents of the…

Rules of the Iberian two-handed sword, compiled by Diego Gomez de Figueiredo in 1651

Senichev V. (2019). Pravila Iberijskogo dvuruchnogo mecha, sostavlennye Diego Gomesom de Figejredo v 1651 godu [Rules of the Iberian two-handed sword, compiled by Diego Gomez de Figueiredo in 1651]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 7, pp. 89 — 107. Senichev V. Abstract: The article presents a brief review and translation of the treatise titled Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (MS 49.III.20.nº.21) which is devoted to an Iberian two-handed sword by the name of ‘montante’. The treatise is written by the Portuguese Mestre de Campo Diego Gomez de Figueredo for his student, the prince Dom Theodosio de Bragança, son of the king of Portugal Jean IV the Restorer. The treatise by de Figueredo, although being the most recent in terms of creation, is also one of the most comprehensive ones written about the Iberian two-handed sword. The manuscript describes thirty-two rules or regras for a large two-handed sword, designed to strengthen…

French-language Marks of Blade Smiths from Kazi-Kumukh (Dagestan) in the 19th Century

Talantov S. (2019). Klejma oruzhejnikov iz Kazi-Kumuha (Dagestan) serediny XIX veka na francuzskom jazyke [French-language Marks of Blade Smiths from Kazi-Kumukh (Dagestan) in the 19th Century]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 7, pp. 108 — 115. S. Talantov Abstract: The problematics of the investigation of Dagestan weapons dating back to the first half- middle of the 19th century stems from the absence of the background information about the masters due to the continuing military campaigns in the Eastern and Southern Caucasus during the Caucasian war. The Lak village of Kazi-Kumukh is famous as the motherland of seasonal masters such as widely known Guzun Guzunov, Osman Omarov and others who worked in Vladikavkaz in the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th century. Kazi-Kumukh was the principal village of the Kazi-Kumukh khanate and one of the centers of the weapon manufacturing in Dagestan. The author managed to find and…