Edged Weapons and Ritualized Theatrical Performances in Iran

Malozyomova E. I. Holodnoe oruzhie i ritual’no-teatralizovannye predstavlenija v Irane [Edged Weapons and Ritualized Theatrical Performances in Iran]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 8, pp. 151 — 189. Malozyomova E. I. Abstract: The article is devoted to the analyzes of number of Iranian edged weapons, lacking any fighting efficiency but distinctively ornamented, from the collections of the Russian museum of ethnography and Peter the Great Museum of anthropology and ethnography (the Kunstkamera). Such weapons of diversified types (sabers, swords, daggers, battle-axes, defensive weapons) form a considerable part of museum collections, and evidently were produced by quantities in Iran, from where they appeared in the museums either directly, that is important, or via the antique shops in Europe and Russia in the second half of the 19th-the beginning of the 20th centuries. Based on the complex analyses of both the objects, and primary sources as well as research literature on…

Specifity of Identification of the Materials, Used for Oriental Edged Weapons Handles Manufacturing, as well as Pieces of Applied Arts, Made of Rhinoceros Horn

Miloserdov D. Y. Osobennosti opredelenija materiala rukojatej vostochnogo klinkovogo oruzhija, a takzhe hudozhestvennyh i dekorativno-prikladnyh izdelij, izgotovlennyh iz roga nosoroga [Specifity of Identification of the Materials, Used for Oriental Edged Weapons Handles Manufacturing, as well as Pieces of Applied Arts, Made of Rhinoceros Horn]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 8, pp. 135 — 150. Miloserdov D. Y. Abstract: The article actualizes the problem of correct identification and distinguishing of osteological materials, used for manufacturing of different pieces of applied arts, including the handles of edged weapons. The author states these materials to be often described as just “horn”, though horns of different mammals were used. The most complex the problem is with the describing of the objects made of the horn of the rhinoceros. It causes not only mistakes in museum descriptions, but also more serious aftereffects, concerning the definition of insurance value of the objects transported and exhibited.…

An Attempt of Hermeneutic Approach to Solve a Problem, Concerning the Interpretation of Indian Historical Weapons as Signs-Objects of Traditional Culture

Kurochkin A. Y. Opyt germenevticheskogo podhoda k resheniju gnoseologicheskoj problemy interpretacii predmetov istoricheskogo oruzhija Indii kak veshhej-simvolov tradicionnoj kul’tury [An Attempt of Hermeneutic Approach to Solve a Problem, Concerning the Interpretation of Indian Historical Weapons as Signs-Objects of Traditional Culture]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 8, pp. 93 — 134. Kurochkin A. Y. Abstract: The current research presents a bash, had at analyzes of historical weapons of India,  using the cohesive approach, which was proposed by scholars for studying objects, acting in the traditional cultures and having profound symbolic meaning alongside their utilitarian functions. Simultaneously, the very role of these objects and the range of their practical use are comprehended in terms of their ritual, ceremonial, cultic, and other ways of application, which were not the less practical in the traditional cultures. Today the most common approach used for Indian weapons studying is still the one, which was formed…

Weapon as a Party to a Relationship

Sheremetev D. A. (2020). Oruzhie kak sub’ekt otnoshenij [Weapon as a Party to a Relationship]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 8, pp. 4 — 85. Sheremetev D. A. Abstract: The article represents a shot, taken at analyzes of weapon as a party to a relationship in the realm of traditional military cultures. The grounds for the question are the folkloristic data and ethnographic watch that testify the specific for the traditional cultures way of weapon perception, which goes far beyond the instrumental approach, typical for the modern cultures. In a traditional culture object, in general, and weapon, in particular, obtains semantic ties with mythological era of the Creation and hence, have its own cultural status. The special position of weapon in the cultural hierarchy presumes its complex internal structure, which permits it to exist adequately in the system of relationship with other objects and the universe. The current research…

Revisiting the Russian Weapons from Crucible Steel in the 17th Century (a case study of the former archive of the Armoury Chamber)

Orlenko S., Novosyolov V., Kurmanovsky V. (2019). K voprosu o bulatnom oruzhii russkoj raboty XVII v. (po materialam byvshego arhiva Oruzhejnoj palaty) [Revisiting the Russian Weapons from Crucible Steel in the 17th Century (a case study of the former archive of the Armoury Chamber)]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 7, pp. 6 — 88. Orlenko S., Novosyolov V., Kurmanovsky V. Abstract: The problem of the present article is the history of the manufacturing and functioning of weapons made from crucible steel in Russia. It is a challenging question for the local weapon study. The main object of the investigation is the Moscow Armoury Chamber, which was the court workshop and stockpile for the Russian tsars in the 17th century.  The present research is based on the authentic sources concerning the activity of the Armoury Chamber in the 17thcentury. These are the inventories, cash receipts and payment books, documents of the…

Rules of the Iberian two-handed sword, compiled by Diego Gomez de Figueiredo in 1651

Senichev V. (2019). Pravila Iberijskogo dvuruchnogo mecha, sostavlennye Diego Gomesom de Figejredo v 1651 godu [Rules of the Iberian two-handed sword, compiled by Diego Gomez de Figueiredo in 1651]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 7, pp. 89 — 107. Senichev V. Abstract: The article presents a brief review and translation of the treatise titled Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (MS 49.III.20.nº.21) which is devoted to an Iberian two-handed sword by the name of ‘montante’. The treatise is written by the Portuguese Mestre de Campo Diego Gomez de Figueredo for his student, the prince Dom Theodosio de Bragança, son of the king of Portugal Jean IV the Restorer. The treatise by de Figueredo, although being the most recent in terms of creation, is also one of the most comprehensive ones written about the Iberian two-handed sword. The manuscript describes thirty-two rules or regras for a large two-handed sword, designed to strengthen…

French-language Marks of Blade Smiths from Kazi-Kumukh (Dagestan) in the 19th Century

Talantov S. (2019). Klejma oruzhejnikov iz Kazi-Kumuha (Dagestan) serediny XIX veka na francuzskom jazyke [French-language Marks of Blade Smiths from Kazi-Kumukh (Dagestan) in the 19th Century]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 7, pp. 108 — 115. S. Talantov Abstract: The problematics of the investigation of Dagestan weapons dating back to the first half- middle of the 19th century stems from the absence of the background information about the masters due to the continuing military campaigns in the Eastern and Southern Caucasus during the Caucasian war. The Lak village of Kazi-Kumukh is famous as the motherland of seasonal masters such as widely known Guzun Guzunov, Osman Omarov and others who worked in Vladikavkaz in the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th century. Kazi-Kumukh was the principal village of the Kazi-Kumukh khanate and one of the centers of the weapon manufacturing in Dagestan. The author managed to find and…

Training System of using shashka by the Don Cossacks

Yarovoj A. (2018). Sistema obuchenija vladeniju shashkoj v kul’ture donskih kazakov [Training System of using shashka by the Don Cossacks]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 5-6, pp. 146 — 160. Yarovoj A. Abstract: The questions concerning the effectiveness of shashka, its origin and place in the Cossacks history are still among the disputable ones in contemporary Russian weaponology. The article is devoted to the analysis of training system of using shashkain the Cossack traditional culture at the edge of the 19thand 20thcenturies. The investigation was based on the actual pieces of the Don Cossacks edged weapons introduced to the scientific literature as well as on the field data and notes made by ethnographers working at Cossacks villages Starorechenskaja, Romanovskaja, Khomutovskaja, Kazanskaja, Jelizavetinskaja, Krivjanskaja, Starocherkasskaja,Razdorskaja,Verhne-Kundrjuchinskaja, Tsimljanskaja, Jegorlikskaja, Mechetinskaja, etc. Analyzing the vast historical and ethnographical data the author explains and describes institutional origins of the training system of long bladed weapons usage…

LE JEU DE LA HACHE – a Burgundian Treatise on Dueling

Senichev V. (2018). Le jeu de la hache – burgundskij traktat o poedinkah [LE JEU DE LA HACHE – a Burgundian Treatise on Dueling]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 5-6, pp. 131 — 145. Senichev V. Abstract: The article presents a brief review and the author’s translation of a treatise on fencing «Le Jeu de la Hache» (MS Francias 1996)or “Games with poleax”. This anonymous manuscript in Middle French was presumably written in the 15thcentury by a Milan fencing master at the court of Burgundian duke Charles the Brave (1433 – 1477) and consists of 18 pages (240 x 160 mm) of handwritten text. The treatise is devoted to the only weapon, a poleax, and contains the description of the largest known number of skills and techniques of the weapon usage. The treatise is divided into 78 paragraphs grouped in three parts – an introductory one describing the ways of combat between right-handed warriors and the part showing…

Edward fon Lenz – a founder of Russian weaponology

Samgin S. (2018). Jeduard Jeduardovich Lenc kak osnovatel’ rossijskogo oruzhievedenija [Edward fon Lenz – a founder of Russian weaponology]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 5-6, pp. 111 — 130. Samgin S. Abstract: The article deals with the creative legacy of Edward fon Lenz (1856-1919) who appeared to become a founder of Russian weaponology. Today for a variety of reasons his papers except the most important ones are almost unknown in Russia. The focus of his interests lying in the field of historical weapons studying was very wide ranging from the systematization and description of the Russian collections of weapons to the analysis of archaeological arms and armour, from the studying of the weapon manufacturing centers to the general popularization of the weaponology. He wrote both small articles and major works, the deep scientific papers and general-audience essays. The best period for his scientific life was the years between 1899 and 1918…

The Origins and Appurtenance of Richly Ornamented Weapons Transferred from the Ministry of Defense of the USSR to the Armoury Chamber in 1955

bibliographic data Novosyolov V. Abstract: The article is devoted to the group of richly decorated edged weapons transferred from the Ministry of Defense of the USSR by order of G.K. Zhukov, the Minister of Defense, to the Kremlin Armoury Chamber in 1955. The group consists of two daggers, a Caucasus cavalry word (shashka) and seven sabers. One of the daggers represents an Iranian dagger type usually called “khanjar”, the other is a Caucasus “kama”. Two sabers are of “Asian type” with golden mounts decorated with colored enamel, diamonds and other precious stones. Another saber represents again the “Asian type” with silver mount ornamented with enamel and diamonds. Two sabers are the so called “shamshirs” also decorated with enamels and gold and the last pair of sabers represents the golden honorary weapon. Most blades were provided with Arabian inscriptions and marking stamps which haven’t been studied and translated yet. The translation of…

The Battle Axes of Afghanistan

Miloserdov D. (2018). Boevye topory Afganistana [The Battle Axes of Afghanistan]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 5-6, pp. 66 — 76. Miloserdov D. Abstract: Axe is a short-bladed weapon of slashing blow and simultaneously one of the oldest weapons for a close combat. Because of its great effectiveness stemming from the combination of arm-handle and relatively heavy and massive blade with short and hence well centered striking surface axe was very handy and consequently favored weapon to fight close-in from day one. In the eastern countries it was also quite popular and widespread. Good number of battle axes being used in India and Persia were known and described while axes which were current in near by Afghanistan haven’t deserved the scholarly attention yet. Two main types of battle axes which could be called the “afghan” one are distinguished today and several their variants appear to have been typical for the…

Studying of Persian and Indian Miniature as Primary Source for Weapon History Research (methodological aspects)

Malozyomova E., Kurochkin A. (2018). Osobennosti metodologii issledovanija persidskoj i indijskoj miniatjury kak istochnika po izucheniju istorii oruzhija [Studying of Persian and Indian Miniature as Primary Source for Weapon History Research (methodological aspects)]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 5-6, pp. 27 — 65. Malozyomova E. Kurochkin A. Abstract: The article is devoted to the aspects of using oriental miniature as a primary source. Drawing on a number of concrete samples of Persian and Indian miniature art, the authors reveal the dependence of the painting informational validity on the understanding of its authenticity and the place, time and circumstances of its creation. The only way to get the relevant data is the usage of different approaches to the study of miniatures illustrating epic and mythological stories, court chronicles, fairy tales or historical events as well as paying attention to the aims of miniature making: either for an only aristocratic patron or for the…

What is atajo

Alifer A. (2018). Chto est’ atajo [What is atajo]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 5-6, pp. 5 — 26. Alifer A. Abstract: The article is devoted to the term atajo – one of the words used in the Spanish fencing school La Verdadera Destreza. The term can’t be either translated or corresponded with any other one from thesaurus of both different fencing schools and even more so contemporary competitive fencing. Hence atajo can claim being the most complex term in destreza. As a rule in the guidebooks for fencing the word is taken for granted but it the course of time it lost its true meaning which is obscure today. Analyzing the texts by the Spanish fencing masters like Don Luis Pacheco de Narváez, Dom Diogo Gomes de Figueyredo, Francisco Antonio de Ettenhard y Abarca and others and comparing the information with the contemporary linguistic data the author speculates about the…

On the Dagger belonged to Timothy Jaschik, the Bodyguard Cossack in the Emperor Nikolas II and the Empress Maria Fjodorovna Service

Talantov S. (2016). Kinzhal Timofeja Jashhika — kamer-kazaka pri imperatore Nikolae II i imperatrice Marii Fedorovne [On the Dagger belonged to Timothy Jaschik, the Bodyguard Cossack in the Emperor Nikolas II and the Empress Maria Fjodorovna Service]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 4, pp. 62 — 73. Talantov S. Abstract: The article is devoted to the Caucasus dagger of the kama type with scabbard provided with an inscription on its mouth. On the author’s opinion the personal name which was mentioned in the inscription defines the dagger’s owner, of a Kuban Cossack Timothy Ksenofontovich Jaschik, who in 1902 was on service in Tiflis. Timothy Jaschik and his astonishing fate which was tightly connected with the family of the last Russian Emperor is attractive to the vast audience who take interest not only in the history of the Cossacks weapons but in the Russian history of the beginning of the 20th…