The Legend of “berendeika”. Historical and Linguistic Note

Kurbatov O. A. (2021). Legenda o berendejke. Istoriko-lingvisticheskaja zametka [The Legend of “berendeika”. Historical and linguistic note]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 11, pp. 150 — 170. Kurbatov O. A. Abstract: The article is dedicated to simultaneous existence of two terms for a bandelier* in Russian historiography. One of them is bandeler which has occurred in documents since 1631 with a large number of variant readings. The word bandeler itself was borrowed unchanged from Western European military terminology alongside with other terms for items of equipment not yet known in Russia. The second term is berendeika which first occurred in the Military Dictionary by General Tuchkov S.A. in 1818. Tuchkov substituted the term bandeler with berendeika based on erroneous etymology. However, the final establishment of the word berendeika in military historical and reference literature due to its use in “Historical description of the clothes and weapons of Russian troops,…

Russian Combat Knives of XIV–XVII Centuries: Classification Error and Authentic Artefacts of the Kremlin Armoury Collection

Novoselov V. R. (2021). Russkie boevye nozhi XIV–XVII vekov: proishozhdenie mifa i podlinnye pamjatniki iz sobranija Oruzhejnoj palaty [Russian combat knives of XIV–XVII centuries: classification error and authentic artefacts of the Kremlin Armoury collection]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 11, pp. 106 — 149. Novoselov V. R. Abstract: The article explores a set of historical arms which were published with illustrations as Russian combat knives of XIV–XVII centuries in “Historical description of the clothes and weapons of Russian troops, with illustrations” (1841) by Viskovatov A.V. The author manages to confirm the fact that all six depicted knives match real pieces of short blade arms that are still kept in the Kremlin Armoury. The author compares illustrations from Viskovatov’s publication with information from archival documents and attribution of these artifacts based on their modern scientific classification and data from written sources. However, it becomes clear that none of the artifacts…

Arms Production in Adjaro-Gurian region in the end of 18th – early 20th Сentury

Dvalishvili D. B., Talantov S. V. (2021). O proizvodstve oruzhija v Adzharii i Gurii v XVIII-XIX vekah [Arms Production in Agjara and Guria in the 18th – early 20th Сenturyy]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 11, pp. 40 — 105. Dvalishvili L. B., Talantov S. V. Abstract: Arms produced in Adjara and Guria have long been barely described in Russian studies of Cauсasian historical arms, although there are numerous items of Adjarian and Gurian production in private and museum collections. The region of Adjara and Guria (located in the southwestern part of Georgia on the eastern coast of the Black Sea) included a part of historical territory of Shavsheti Machakheli, Adjara, Lower and Upper Guria, eastern Lazistan (currently part of Georgia) and a part of modern Turkey. There are numerous traces of medieval iron production by smelting local ores in the region. By the second half of the XVIII…

Kabardian Craftsmen in the XVIII Century: Production and Decoration of Arms

Talantov S. V. (2021). O proizvodstve i ukrashenii oruzhija kabardinskimi masterami v XVIII veke [Kabardian craftsmen in the XVIII century: production and decoration of arms]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 11, pp. 21 — 39. Talantov S. V. Abstract: The article covers the issue of production and decoration of arms by Kabardian craftsmen in the XVIII century. The topic is determined by the fact that Circassians (also Cherkashenins, Cherkess) in Russian historical records of this period might have been a collective term for numerous representatives of Adyghe nation including Kabardians, Trans-Kuban and Black Sea Adyghe. Based on this probability, the author attempts to identify origins of craftsmen through analysis of written sources and documents. The article emphasizes the importance of economic factors in the study of arms production in the region and the population (i.e., its nationalities, class division, etc.) which used to create demand for arms. In this…

Iconography of Kite-Shields in the Western European Manuscripts of the Late X-XI Centuries

Rybel D. A. (2021). Ikonografija mindalevidnyh shitov v manuskriptah Zapadnoj Evropy konca X-XI vekov [Iconography of kite-shields in the Western European manuscripts of the late X-XI centuries]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 11, pp. 8 — 20. Rybel D. A. Abstract: The article focuses on how such an item of protective equipment as a kite-shield appeared and was illustrated in Western European manuscript illuminations of the XI century. Archaeological data is insufficient for a full-scale study of shields of the XI century, and therefore the study of pictorial sources is of particular importance. However, the number of pictorial sources is quite large so the research was deliberately limited to analysis of miniatures from manuscripts in the first place. The author critically examines all available manuscripts of the end of the X-XI centuries which contain images of such shields and groups them by geography (France, England, Spain, Germany, Italy). The…

The Mysterious Mark of “Gevork”

Neratova E. I. (2021). Snova o zagadochnom Gevorke [The Mysterious Mark of “Gevork”]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 10, pp. 69 — 77. Neratova E. I. Abstract: This article provides further analysis and interpretation of an inscription found within a stamp on some of Tiflis daggers. Previously, it was proposed that such a stamp contained the name “Heraclius” and, accordingly, these daggers were attributed to the works of the armory workshop of the king of the Kartli-Kakhetian kingdom of the late 18th century. In 2014, the author’s study indicated the absence of the name “Heraclius” within the stamp and suggested that the correct reading of the inscription gives the name “Gevo” (Gevork).  It was made evident through his study that these blades were manufactured by this Tiflis master in the early 19th century. In the present study, the author provides a detailed analysis of his interpretation of the inscription…

Concerning Shashka Hilts

Sheremetev D. A. (2021). O rukojati shashki [Concerning Shashka Hilts]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 10, pp. 31 — 68. Sheremetev D. A. Abstract: The article is dedicated to a specific hilt shape of a Caucasian shashka. According to a popular hypothesis, hilts with bifurcated pommels derived from the need to use a shashka as a support during rifle shooting. This hypothesis is not substantiated by reliable facts and represents a stereotyped response of technical thinking to an unfamiliar cultural phenomenon. The author proposes a symbolic interpretation of the explored phenomenon and postulates a necessity to apply synthetic rather than analytical research methods to symbolic meanings. Generalized, a shashka hilt is examined together with a yataghan hilt and a Central Asian knife hilt with overhead mounting. Abstraction resulted in obtaining a schematic model of a shashka hilt made of two bone or horn scales riveted to a flat tang of…

Peter the Great’s Travel Sword

Novoselov V. R. (2021). Pohodnyj tesak Petra Velikogo [Peter the Great’s Travel Sword]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 10, pp. 4 — 30. Novoselov V. R. Abstract: The article offers the research, done on a unique artifact from the collection of the Moscow Kremlin Museums. It is a broadsword with a wide blade of crucible steel, provided with short grooves, carved through for pieces, imitating pearls to roll in. The broadsword came from Peter I’s palace in the village of Preobrajenskoye, where a large group of edged and fire arms, partly belonged to the great monarch, was deposited. In the palace register of weapons, this broad sword was put down as “tesak” (fascine knife). An interesting detail of the object is an engraving, which was made on the silver plate, decorating its scabbard mouth. It represents an image of a warrior, dressed in European fashioned uniform and a Russian…

The Dagger of the Serasker Agmet Urfe-Valesa, a Relic of Russian Military Glory

Levykin A. K., Novoselov V. R. (2021). Kinzhal seraskira Agmeta Urfe-Valesy – relikvija russkoj voennoj slavy [The Dagger of the Serasker Agmet Urfe-Valesa, a Relic of Russian Military Glory]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 10, pp.  117— 149. Levykin A. K., Novoselov V. R. Abstract: The article examines a precious Turkish dagger that belonged to a high-ranking Turkish military commander Agmet Urfe-Valesa.  The dagger became a trophy of the Russian army in the Battle of Galatsa on November 5, 1769. The detachment of the Russian army that won this victory was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel F. I. Fabrizian, who for this victory was awarded the honor of becoming the first knight of the Order of St. George, which the Empress Catherine II founded shortly before this event. A rare dagger, decorated with enamels and a precious diamond setting, it was sent by the commander of the Russian army, Count…

Concerning the Genealogy of the Master of Cold Weapons Geurk

Dvalishvili L. B. (2021). K voprosu o genealogii oruzhejnika Geurka [Concerning the Genealogy of the Master of Cold Weapons Geurk]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 10, pp. 78 — 116. Dvalishvili L. B. Abstract: The article contains new and little-known facts about the life of the renowned master of cold weapons Geurk. The author sets the goal to introduce various biographical data about Geurk into scientific circulation since the dissemination of false information about this person is partly caused by an insufficient number of sources. It involves the fact that most archival documents are not processed or published while available data are scattered in numerous publications and lack sufficient attention. In addition, most historical works are aimed at limited groups of Georgian-speaking specialists which makes them inaccessible to Russian-speaking audience. These documents are often overlooked; hence the information gap surrounding the subject remains unbridged. Thus, the article might be informative…

On the Origin of Armour-marking in the German-speaking Lands

Bogdanov A.E. (2020). K voprosu o vozniknovenii praktiki klejmlenija dospeha v nemeckojazychnyh zemljah [On the Origin of Armour-marking in the German-speaking Lands]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 9, pp. 180 — 203. Bogdanov A. E. Abstract: Master mark is one of the main basics for the correct attribution of the European armour. However, on studying the armour suits, manufactured before the second half of the 15th century,    scholars are inevitably faced with the problem that no country saving Italy practiced armour marking in that time. The aim of the article is to point out and trace the origin of armour marking outside of Italy, and it can be rightfully considered as a turning point in the history of the European armour manufacturing. The author describes the backstory of existence and interconnections of Italian and German gunsmith schools in the 15th century. On the grounds of the analysis of armour…

An officer’s Fate. Junior Captain A.G.Erkudov’s small sword with an award badge of the Order of St. Anne

Novoselov V.R. (2020). Sud’ba oficera. Annenskaja shashka shtabs-kapitana A. G. Jerkudova [An officer’s Fate. Junior Captain A.G.Erkudov’s small sword with an award badge of the Order of St. Anne]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 9, pp. 170 — 179. Novoselov V. R. Abstract: The article is devoted to a small sword with an award badge of the Order of St. Anne from the collection of the Moscow Kremlin Museums, and to the fate of its owner, Junior Captain A.G.Erkudov. In the course of investigation, the author managed to ascertain that A.G.Erkudov was rewarded with the badge of the order of St. Anne of the 4th Class for the participation in the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905. The archival records found by the author permitted him to trace some details of Junior Captain Erkudov’s life and to provide insight into the circumstances by which he earned the award. The short life of…

The Collection of Corps Weapons from the State Hermitage Museum “Arsenal”

Biskup N.R. (2020). Kollekcija studencheskih korporacij iz sobranija Arsenala Gosudarstvennogo Jermitazha [The Collection of Corps Weapons from the State Hermitage Museum “Arsenal”]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 9, pp. 118 — 149. Biskup N. R. Abstract: The author introduces into scientific discourse the collection of corps weapons from the State Hermitage museum. This unique collection is of great importance for the study of mensur duels that were practiced among the Russian student groups in the second half of the 19th- the beginning of the 20th century. In the “Arsenal” department collections of arms and amour, used in such duels and marked with the corps emblems of Dorpat, Riga and Saint-Petersburg universities are curated. On the territory of the Russian Empire, the corps were organized in the Baltic universities as well as in the Saint-Petersburg and Moscow ones, while the very notion was borrowed from Germany, where the tradition of…

A sword, a suit of armour and a quiver to be presented to Nicholas II

Neratova E. I. (2020). Mech, dospeh i saadak – dar Nikolaju II [A sword, a suit of armour and a quiver to be presented to Nicholas II]. Istoricheskoe oruzhievedenie [Weapons History Journal], № 9, pp. 150 — 169. Neratova E. I. Abstract: The article deals with the objects from the collection of the Russian museum of ethnography, which were presented on behalf of Dalai Lama XIII to Nicholas II on the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty. The author briefly analyzes the political situation and Russian-Tibetan relationship both in diplomatic and spiritual spheres just before the participation of the Tibet formal representative in the festivities on the occasion of the Russian ruling house jubilee. The presents to the Russian tsar are explained to have been a thoroughly measured stroke of policy, aimed to bring Tibet the international recognition in political affairs. Unfortunately, this move did not have ramifications because of…