Abstract: The article describes two kinds of the bow of the “Hunting weapons” collection of The State Darwin Museum. The first one is the vogul bow. The Voguls is the old name of the numerically small national group of Russia – Mansi, which is the native population of the Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug. The bow is a composite bow. Its long shaft (185 cm) consists of a back and an inner plate glued together and additionally fixed in six places by the winding made of tendons.
The second one is a simple bow used by indigenous peoples of New Guinea. The bow is made of dark wood of a sago palm that is quite solid, firm and not prone to cracking. The length of the bow is 163 cm. The bow-string is made of a bamboo strip fixed on the bow by special knots.
Both bows were used for hunting and, according to the author, to demonstrate two ways of changing the hunting bow: development in the North and stagnation in the South.
Keywords: composite bow, simple bow, arrows, arrowhead, The State Darwin Museum, peoples of the North, Papuans of New Guinea